Our organs gradually deteriorate and accumulate damage as we age, leaving us more vulnerable to illness. Because of this, many scientists are now focused on developing strategies to reduce, stop, or even reverse the effects of ageing. If effective, so-called anti-aging therapies could make age-related diseases less common and lengthen and improve the quality of our lives. Currently, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), a crucial molecule, is being studied as one of the most promising anti-aging targets.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide or NMN is a molecule our bodies naturally make and is further essential for the development of the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+). The body's enzymatic processes convert NMN, which serves as a precursor to NAD+, into NAD+. NAD+ is involved in a number of cellular functions, such as gene expression, DNA repair, and energy metabolism.
It is a ribo-nucleotide, which is a fundamental component of the RNA nucleic acid, at the molecular level. The molecule is made up structurally of a ribose, a nicotinamide group, and a phosphate group.
Enhancing energy production and upregulating cellular repair are some of the changes caused by an increase in the intracellular NAD+ levels that improve survival chances. NMN supports cellular health and function by raising NAD+ levels and various age-related conditions have been linked to a natural decline in NAD+ levels, which is a natural process.
Over the last few years, researchers have focused on two key NAD+ intermediates: nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). The supplementation of these NAD+ intermediates has shown preventive and therapeutic effects in the treatment of age-related pathophysiologies and disease conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular issues, cognitive impairment, and many others. (3) (4)
Some of the new studies conducted in mice and humans have targeted the NAD+ metabolism with NAD+ intermediates. In a 12-month NMN administration study, age-associated body weight gain was ameliorated, energy metabolism and physical activity were improved, and age-related changes in gene expression were reversed, demonstrating NMN as an effective anti-aging agent.(5)
NMN supplementation is effective at alleviating age-related metabolic disorders and slowing the progression of a wide range of age-related physiological phenotypes. Surprisingly, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the NAMPT reaction and a key NAD+ intermediate, alleviates glucose intolerance in HFD-induced T2D mice by restoring NAD+ levels. NMN also improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and restores gene expression associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and circadian rhythm, in part by activating SIRT1. (6)
The Japanese researchers examined NMN's effects on blood NAD+ since rat studies have revealed a positive link between increasing NAD+ with NMN and preventing age-related physiological decline. They discovered that giving older men NMN increases the amount of NAD+ in their blood by more than twice. In a non-peer reviewed journal article published in Research Square, Yamauchi and colleagues from the University of Tokyo demonstrated that giving men over 65-250 mg of NMN orally per day significantly raised their NAD+ levels and enhanced muscle performance. The study was conducted for 12 weeks and the oral supplementation of 250 mg of NMN per day was found to be safe and well-tolerated by healthy older men.
The effect of NMN supplementation on endurance exercise performance was examined in a six-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-arm clinical experiment by Guangzhou Sport University researchers. A substantial correlation between NMN supplementation and particular tests of endurance capacity was discovered by Liao et al. The study runners' ventilatory threshold and power at VT2 were enhanced by NMN supplementation, resulting in more effective blood circulation of oxygen. These results, according to the researchers, are the result of increased skeletal muscle oxygen consumption. It's interesting to note that the measurements of cardiac function (VO2max% and O2-pulse) did not significantly change in the intervention groups, according to the researchers. These findings imply that human skeletal muscle may be a more NMN-sensitive tissue than cardiac muscle. (7)
It's critical to remember that NMN is still a subject of active scientific research, despite some encouraging research in this area. To fully comprehend its potential advantages and any potential risks related to long-term use, more research is required. It's always a good idea to speak with a medical expert before considering NMN supplementation so they can offer personalized advice based on your unique health needs and situation.
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- What is NMN? | Official NMN Research & Data Summary
- Twelve Weeks of NMN Supplementation Improves Muscle Function
- NMN Supplementation Improves Measures of Endurance Capacity in Amateur Runners, A New Study Finds (insidetracker.com)